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2021 Ultimate Front-End Development Roadmap.

The collection of the front-end development roadmap below will help you on your way to becoming a senior developer. Use it as a jumping-off point for your research and don’t be scared to stray off the route!

Front-end development is a wide term that encompasses everything from web design to developing user interfaces. It’s one of today’s most popular and in-demand professions. As the need for more complex front-end programming grows, so does the number of developers searching for work in that field.

A Front-End Development Roadmap.

Front-end development has progressed beyond HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in 2021. To succeed as a front-end developer this year, you’ll need to understand a variety of web technologies.

Basic Terminal Usage (Command line)

The terminal is a very powerful software that allows you to accomplish things that the graphical interface does not allow you to do. If you operate in a server-based environment, you’ll need to be familiar with command-line tools. I’d suggest starting with William E.Shotts Jr.’s The Linux Command Line, 4th Edition for a solid introduction to the topic, then returning here to discover some tips and tricks that could make your life simpler.

It is amount the front-end development roadmap because every programmer should be comfortable with the command line, but it’s also one of the most daunting aspects of programming. This lesson will teach you how to navigate your computer and do simple activities such as reading files in text editors and installing applications from source code using the basic commands.

Here are some resources to help you learn how to use the command line:

Git – Version Control

The administration of modifications to documents, computer programs, big websites, and other collections of information is known as version control (also known as source control, revision control, or software configuration management) its also one of the key factors of the Front-End Development Roadmap.

On huge projects, several developers must work together without stepping on each other’s toes. A shared centralized repository that holds all versions of the source code is the easiest approach to implement version control. Every developer has read-only access to the same repository in this way.

Here are some resources to learn Git:

Github

GitHub is the most popular coding platform in the world. It offers a public or private repository service where developers can host, share and collaborate on code. It has been increasingly adopted by GIS users for sharing data and code and is becoming very powerful in this regard.

This is among the Front-End Development roadmap because the number of projects hosted on Github is growing exponentially and there are now over 2 million repositories in total. The amount of data that are hosted in GitHub has also grown immensely: it’s now at 50 TB! Private repositories only count towards the total if they have had at least one Git push event in.

Github is a web-based hosting service for software development projects that use the Git revision control system. It’s all about open source, open-source and more open source. What makes this site so popular is the fact that it’s free to use, which means it can be used by anyone with an internet connection. But there are also other benefits to using Github, including

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• A great way to get your code out there and share it with others;

• An easy way to store code; and

• The ability to receive feedback

Here are some learning materials for Git:

Text Editor / IDE (Integrated development environment).

A text editor is an application that you can use to write your code. Text editors are very different from word processors like Microsoft Word. They usually have simple features and fewer options than a word processor.

When writing code, you usually want to work with a text editor instead of a word processor. A programmer may spend several hours coding in one sitting, so it makes sense to optimize the workflow for this type of task. This way, developers will get more done in less time and won’t be distracted by formatting or layout concerns when they should be focused on the actual programming itself.

A text editor is usually small, fast and very simple. It’s used to edit plain text files (like source code) and run the compiler/interpreter to execute commands. For example, Notepad++ on Windows or TextWrangler on Mac.

There are many IDEs to choose from, but here are a few to consider:

  • Visual studio code – The best IDE for front-end development is Visual Studio Code. It is compatible with all operating systems, including macOS, Windows, and Linux. Visual studio code has a lot of extensions that can help you be more productive as a front-end developer.
  • Sublime text – Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose. You’ll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance.
  • Atom – Atom is a free, open-source text editor that’s deeply customizable. It uses the same core as GitHub’s Atom text editor and has plugins for just about everything.

Web Fundamentals.

Before learning any technology, it’s critical to understand how the web operates. You should educate yourself on topics such as:

Learn how to use HTML.

HTML is short for Hyper-Text Markup Language, and it is the standard markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser.

You should master the fundamentals of HTML, such as:

  • HTML Headings- these are what you use to display titles or subtitles on your web pages. It consists of <h1> which is the most important heading andwhich is the least important.
  • HTML Forms – HTML forms are used to collect data inputs such as username, email, contact details.
  • HTML Elements – HTML elements define how web browsers will format and display content. Content in the <i> tag will be displayed as italics, content in the <strong> tag will be displayed as bold.
  • HTML Attributes – HTML attributes provide additional information about the HTML elements. For example, thetag is used to embed an image in a web page, the src attribute will be used to define the path where the image is located.
  • HTML layout – HTML layout defines the different ways a website displays content. It is advisable to use semantic HTML elements such as <header><nav><section><article><footer>, because it clearly describes the element to the browser and developer.

Here are some HTML learning resources:

Learn CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)

CSS is a simple language that allows us to style our web pages so they look good on any screen size. It’s far from being the most popular programming language in use today, but it’s a very important one.

To understand what CSS is all about, we need to understand its basic concepts: selectors, properties and values. In short, these three concepts are at the core

You should master the following CSS fundamentals:

  • CSS selectors – The CSS selectors allow you to target specific HTML elements in a webpage, and modify their styles. There are many different ways you can select elements on a page with CSS, but some are more efficient than others. In this article, we’ll go over the most common types of CSS selectors so that you can decide which ones work best for your projects.
  • CSS Properties – The CSS Properties are used to style HTML elements. These properties allow us to change the style of an HTML element in terms of its color, font, size, etc. The change in style can be applied to all elements or only specific elements.
  • CSS box model – The CSS box model consists of the margin, border, padding, and content. The image below shows us the CSS box model.
  • CSS positioning – CSS positioning helps you manipulate an element to different locations such as fixed, relative, absolute, static, sticky, etc. The image below shows us CSS positions.
  • CSS grid– CSS grid is a two-dimensional system with rows and columns. CSS grid makes it easier to structure a web page without having to use floats.
  • CSS Flexbox – Flexbox is a one-dimensional system that allows us to choose between a row or a column as the main layout or structure of a web page. CSS flexbox also makes it more flexible to structure a web page without having to use floats.
  • Responsive design and media queries – Responsive design is the approach that an application should be built or designed with the user in mind irrespective of their environment such as screen size/devices. Responsive design is very important and should be in the mind of every developer when building a web application. Media queries are useful when you want to modify your application to fit a device such as Desktops, tablets, and phones. The image below illustrates how an application is viewed on different devices when built with responsive design.

CSS Preprocessor

  • Sass – Sass stands for Syntactically Awesome Stylesheet. According to the documentation, Sass is a stylesheet language that’s compiled to CSS. It allows you to use variables, nested rules, mixins, functions, and more, all with a fully CSS-compatible syntax. Sass helps keep large stylesheets well-organized and makes it easy to share design within and across projects.
  • Less – Less stands for Leaner Style Sheets is a backwards-compatible language extension for CSS.
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CSS Frameworks

  • Tailwind CSS – Tailwind CSS is a utility-first CSS framework for quickly developing bespoke user interfaces, according to the official documentation. We can utilize inline style with Tailwind and get amazing results without writing a single line of CSS.
  • Bootstrap – Bootstrap helps us build fast and responsive websites.
  • Foundation – Foundation is a responsive front-end framework that makes it easier to design responsive websites, apps on any device.
  • Bulma – Bulma is a CSS framework based on flexbox layout.

Here are some resources to learn CSS:

Learn JavaScript

One of the most widely used programming languages is JavaScript. It’s the web’s native tongue. You must learn JavaScript as a front-end developer and that’s why it’s among the Front-End Development Roadmap. We can use JavaScript to create dynamic content. When you use JavaScript to construct your HTML structure and style using CSS, the website becomes dynamic and alive.

Some of the basics of JavaScript you need to learn are:

  • JavaScript Syntax – Every programming language has its own rules on how a program is written.The syntax of JavaScript is the set of rules that determine how a program is written by a programmer and interpreted by a browser.
  • DOM Manipulation – DOM stands for document objects model. According to W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard, the DOM is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of a document. The DOM is a representation of how the content of a web page is structured. JavaScript manipulates the DOM by updating the content, the style, removing elements, adding new elements.
  • Learn Fetch API – API stands for Application Programming Interface. An API is an intermediary that allows two applications to communicate with each other. As a front-end developer, when building a web application, chances are that you will have to work with external data such as Third-party APIs, fetch API allows browsers to make HTTP requests to a web server.

JavaScript Frameworks/Libraries

After learning the basics of JavaScript, you can pick any JavaScript framework of your choice. But I highly recommend you pick Vuejs as it is more beginner-friendly.

  • React – According to the documentation, a JavaScript library for building user interfaces React lets you create reusable components.
  • Vue – Vuejs is an approachable, versatile, performant javascript framework that helps you create a maintainable and testable codebase. Vuejs is also beginner-friendly.
  • Angular – According to the documentation, Angular is an application design framework and development platform for creating efficient and sophisticated single-page apps.
  • Svelte – Svelte provides a different method for building web applications. It helps developers build fast web pages and a great user interface.
  • Ember – Ember allows developers to create a scalable single page application. It includes everything you need to build a rich user interface that works on any device.
  • PREACT – PREACT is an alternative to React but came with a Fast 3kB and the same modern API.

Here are some resources to learn JavaScript:

Package managers

Package managers

Users can use a package manager to install, update, configure, and manage software packages and product dependencies. NPM and Yarn are two examples of package management. It is suggested that you study the fundamentals of one of them.

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Accessibility

The process of making your website accessible to everyone is known as web accessibility. Front-end development is incomplete without consideration for web accessibility. You must create web pages with accessibility in mind as a front-end developer. There are no limitations for anyone when you create with accessibility in mind. People with disabilities, sluggish Internet connections, vision impairments, and hearing impairments can easily access all of the content on the website.

Here are some resources to learn more about Accessibility:

Performance

Web performance, according to MDN, is all about making websites quick, including making sluggish operations appear fast. Fast page rendering is one of the metrics that a good website/web application should satisfy.

The time it takes for an application to render in the browser, as well as how responsive it is to user interaction, is referred to as web performance. It is advised that developers utilize several web optimization strategies for a better user experience.

This involves the usage of a Content Delivery Network (CDN), which is a geographically dispersed web server that provides the content to users. Another approach is to decrease image sizes without sacrificing quality by using image compression software such as image optic.

Other methods to adopt include:

  • Use cache – the whole idea about cache revolves around temporarily saving data and web pages to improve page performance. It is advised that developers implement a cache in the best possible situations to increase site performance and overall user experience. Cached data can be stored on local storage and retrieved when needed.
  • Minimize the number of HTTP requests that your application makes.
  • Load your CSS and JavaScript files asynchronously. This will prevent the browser from waiting for any element that takes extra time to load. It will instead proceed to other elements.
  • Remove junk and unwanted codes in your CSS and JavaScript files.

To get the exact performance data of your web application, you can make use of any of the below-listed tools:

All of the above-listed tools though with different unique features will serve you just right.

Testing Your Apps

Inspect a piece of software during development for a potential bug During testing, the tester interacts with the software while anticipating a certain outcome. Security, functionality, and simplicity of use are all things that may be tested in an application. Testing does not ensure that a piece of software will work well in any situation, but it does give us knowledge about how it could act in specific circumstances.

A Jest is an example of a test tool to use in your application. Jest is a framework for writing and running JavaScript tests in React, Nodejs, Angular, TypeScript, Vue, and other frameworks. Its popularity has risen over time, and it is now one of the most widely used test tools.

Other testing tools and frameworks to try out include:

Website Deployment

You can create simple web pages using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript if you have the necessary expertise. Most of the time, when we finish constructing, it stays on our computer or in our Github repository, and no one else can see what we’ve created. Web deployments, on the other hand, allow you to host your basic application on the internet. It’s quite simple to accomplish. Meanwhile, you can as well use tools like GitHub pages, or Netlify.

Conclusion

Congratulations, you’ve concluded the 2021 front-end development roadmap! You may simply create real-time website apps using the information presented here. Best of luck!

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